Opium

 



David Whitley learns the history of heroin in northern Thailand, but finds that you’re more likely to find tea than opium in the infamous Golden Triangle 

Once upon a time, the hillsides of northern Chiang Rai province were a happy blooming ground for a particularly troublesome flower. The region, reasonably remote and close to the borders with both Myanmar and Laos, was where opium poppies grew with scarcely concealed abandon.

The region became known as the Golden Triangle, and the name has stuck. So has the reputation, even though its one time role as the hub of the global heroin trade has long passed on to Afghanistan.

It might not be the best place to stash up on high grade smack (and resultingly find yourself facing a death sentence in a Thai jail) any more, but it is a fabulous place to learn about the global heroin trade.

There are a couple of attractions in Sop Ruak that are devoted to all things opium, but my education came from a surprising source. The Hilltribe Museum and Education Centre in Chiang Rai is aimed at educated visitors about the hill tribes that live in Northern Thailand. There are problems with language barriers, assimilation, lack of Thai citizenship and education but one of the major issues has been getting enough money to stay out of poverty. In the Golden Triangle’s boom years, a lot of that money came from growing opium poppies.

The history of opium is a colourful, bloody one. The poppy originates in what is now Iraq, and has spread throughout the world from there in the hands of people who realised how nice and woozy the sap from it made them feel. Britain and China fought wars over opium, with Britain being utterly aggrieved that the Chinese wouldn’t let its India-based front company make obscene amounts of money by flooding China with the stuff. China lost those wars – and Britain got Hong Kong as a result.

It all ratcheted up somewhat in 1895, when German pharmaceutical company Bayer had a play with the poppy juice in the chemistry lab. They came up with a version of diacetylmorphine, which they decided to market. Bingo, they thought – a non-addictive alternative to morphine that people could use to treat nasty coughs. Bayer lost the rights to the brand name after World War I – it was a name that may be familiar. Heroin, anyone?

It turned out that it wasn’t quite as non-addictive as first thought. In fact, it was so more-ish that as countries around the world banned it, a lucrative trade emerged in satiating the demand of addicts.

But soon it was the turn of the French and the Americans to take on the epic bastardry baton from the British. Despite being occupied during World War II, the French had enough time to worry about blocked trade routes. They didn’t want India and Persia to have a monopoly on opium production, so they encouraged the Hmong tribal people in the Golden Triangle to bump up production.

Then came the Vietnam War. The French and Americans needed all the allies they could get in the region. With Laos, Vietnam and China all a bit too Communist for their liking, they started forming alliances with tribes. And arming the drug lords who didn’t particularly like the anti-opium Red menaces around them either. Essentially operating under protection, these not entirely pleasant types ensured production boomed. A flood of heroin arrived in the West, gleefully lapped up by US in particular.

A lot of opium is still grown in Myanmar’s chunk of the Golden Triangle, but it has been mostly eradicated in Thailand – partially due to Thai government crackdowns on drug use. In 2003 alone, Thailand imprisoned 92,500 drug users and 43,000 dealers.

But it’s also partly due to eradication programmes. Laos and Thailand have both declared themselves officially poppy free (although not exactly every corner has been thoroughly inspected, and there’s still a steady trickle coming through the mountains in Myanmar).

So where does this leave the people of the area? Well, nowadays you’re more likely to sea tea plantations in these hillsides. Other substitution crops range from rice and coffee to peach trees and asparagus. And tourism plays a part too – the more people that go trekking around the hillsides of Chiang Rai province, stopping to buy food and drink in the villages, the less likely the villagers are to indulge in a spot of highly risky poppy-planting.

In Thailand’s sector of the Golden Triangle, at least, the heroin problem has been dramatically reduced. But it’s like pushing a dead mouse under the carpet to another part of the room. While the growth of opium poppies remains so lucrative – largely due to it being illegal – someone will grow them. We should look forward to trekking tours around the tea plantations of Helmand and Kandahar in about forty years’ time, while the opium-growing shifts to the world’s latest lawless basket case.

Chiang Rai

 

 

Just south of Chiang Rai in Northern Thailand, David Whitley finds a temple where Spiderman, Darth Vader and Harry Potter compete with Buddha

 

 

Ego is a wondrous concoction. It drives us all to do absurd things occasionally, whether it’s taking on a tequila stuntman, or invading Russia during World War II when up until that moment you were winning handsomely.

 

It may also drive you to pour all your time and resources into the construction of a ludicrously over-the-top-temple that features images of Kung Fu Panda and an Angry Bird. Now I’m not suggesting for a second that Thai artist Chalermchai Kositpipat is entirely driven by an ego the size of the rapidly expanding universe, but Wat Rong Khun is, ahem, somewhat expressive.

 

Known to most as the White Temple, Wat Rong Khun is astonishing project. Kicking off in 1997, Chalermchai has poured large amounts of his own money – and some cannily acquisitioned donations – into making a temple that doesn’t follow the usual rules.

 

The prolific dauber is building a modern day temple that’s as much a personal artistic expression as a place of worship. From a distance it looks like it’s made entirely of wedding case icing, decorated with the pernickety touch of someone who believes you can never have too many serifs in a font. It’s a departure from the usual gold-heavy colour riot of Buddhist temples – apparently Chalermchai believes that “gold is suitable to people who lust for evil deeds.”

 

This anti-gold thing doesn’t apply to the public toilets on the site. They are given pride of place, lavished with the sort of ostentation and blinginess usually reserved for the main attraction. It is designed to be the world’s most beautiful toilet*.

 

There are many buildings on the site – Chalermchai seems incapable of finishing one before starting another – but the main one is accessed via a bridge that crosses a pseudo-moat of grasping hands. Some are reaching up with bowls, others hold skulls. It looks suitably hellish.

 

Whilst crossing, you realise that the big wedding cake is actually made of whitewash and reflective glass. But such illusion-shattering doesn’t detract from the barmy majesty of the inner sanctum. It’s still being painted – the whole project is due to last 90 years and Chalermchai has roped in scores of disciples to help him finish it – but subdued it isn’t.

 

The overall theme is clear. There’s a giant, multi-tentacled devil on the back wall, while the side walls depict people floating away on clouds towards the multiple, and impressively stacked Buddhas at the front. But it’s the detail that is quite, quite wonderful. Seemingly at random, the artist has painted in all manner of pop culture references. There’s Spiderman, there’s Harry Potter, there’s Keanu Reeves in his Matrix get-up and there’s Michael Jackson moonwalking on a demon’s forked tongue. Elsewhere, Darth Vader, the Incredible Hulk and Jack Sparrow get a look in. The giant devil’s eyes, meanwhile, have George W Bush and Osama Bin Laden in the middle of them.

 

This may all seem brilliantly, gaudily ludicrous right now, but I’m not sure it is. It’s rare to see such a massive religious building being built contemporaneously. That’s why it seems silly to have contemporary references in it – they seem out of context. But look at the Pyramids, look at Angkor Wat and look at the sculptures and engravings in many cathedrals. They all tell stories – stories of what was either happening at the time or in the not too distant past. Chalermchai Kositpipat his just trying to do what people around the world with big ideas did hundreds of years ago. And when the silly and spectacular come in equal measures, he may just have got it right.

 

*Incidentally, it’s rather bland inside, despite the golden frippery hanging from the roof beams..

 

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